Consortium for Research on Early Childhood Development and Education (CORE)

Consultancy Study on the Effectiveness of the Provision of Quality Kindergarten Education in Hong Kong under the Kindergarten Education Policy​

Funding Source

Education Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Project Period



Team Members

Prof RAO, Nirmala 

Principal Investigator

Dr LAU, Carrie

Co-Principal Investigator


Social Sciences Research Centre, HKU

Prof IP, Patrick

Department of Paediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, HKU

Dr CHAN, Stephanie


Dr LEE, Diana

Ms NG, Rita


The study considers whether the quality of KG education has changed as a result of the implementation of the KG policy, and has 3 main objectives:

  • to examine the effectiveness of the provision of quality KG education in Hong Kong under the KG policy;
  • to identify good practices and areas for improvement for KGs; and
  • to investigate school factors that are conducive to the development of quality KG education.

Project Information

The Hong Kong Education Bureau implemented the new kindergarten education policy starting from the 2017/18 school year with the aim to enhancing kindergarten education in Hong Kong and providing good quality and highly affordable education for kindergarten children.


A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed:

  • We administered principal and teacher questionnaires in three phases: Wave 1: Jun 2018 to Sep 2018, Wave 2: Jun 2019 to Sep 2019, and Wave 3: Jun 2020 to Oct 2020 with 121 kindergartens
  • A sample of 25 KGs was drawn for intensive study.
    • To understand the general situation before the implementation of the KG policy, 15 K3 classes in these 25 KGs were observed in the Pre-policy phase. From Wave 1 to Wave 3, classroom observations were conducted in two class levels in 25 KGs during each Wave (Wave 1: 25 K1 and 25 K2 classes, Wave 2: 25 K1 and 25 K3 classes, Wave 3: 25 K2 and 19 K3 classes).

In the Prepolicy phase, principals from each of the 25 KGs completed a questionnaire and were interviewed. In each wave (from Wave 1 to Wave 3), individual interviews were conducted with the principals of these 25 KGs; 1 teacher from each class observed (50 interviews from 50 classes) and 1 parent from each class observed (50 interviews from 50 classes). Parents of children from classes that were observed completed questionnaires (Wave 1: 879 parents, Wave 2: 798 parents, Wave 3: 431 parents).

Publications and News​

Technical report

Executive summary