EAP-ECDS Research Output

Research Output based on the EAP-ECDS

Research reports

  1. Rao, N., Richards, B., Umayahara, M., Sun, J., Bacon-Shone, J., Ip, P., Lee, D., & Becher, Y. (2017). Myanmar East Asia- Pacific Early Child Development Scales (EAP-ECDS) Project. UNICEF: Myanmar.
  2. Rao, N., Lee, D., Becher, Y., Taplin, M. (2016). Enhancing Early Child Development in Papua New Guinea: Findings from the Early Childhood Facility Survey. UNICEF: Papua New Guinea.
  3. Rao, N., Sun, J, Bacon-Shone, J., Ip, P. & Becher, Y. (2016). East Asia-Pacific Early Child Development Scales -Short Form: Final Report. Singapore: Asia Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood.
  4. Rao, N., Sun, J., Ng, M., Becher, Y., Lee, D., Ip, P., & Bacon-Shone, J. (2014). Validation, Finalization and Adoption of the East Asia-Pacific Early Child Development Scales (EAP-ECDS). UNICEF. http://www.arnec.net/ecd-scales
    Winner of Best of UNICEF Research
  5. UNICEF Office of Research (2015). Early Childhood Development in East Asia and Pacific: Culturally sensitive testing. In Best of UNICEF Research 2015 (p.19-23) Florence, Italy.

Published articles

  1. Rao, N., Richards, B., Lau, C., Weber, A. M., Sun, J., Darmstadt, G. L., Sincovich, A., Bacon-Shone, J., & Ip, P. (2020). Associations among early stimulation, stunting, and child development in four countries in the East Asia-Pacific. International Journal of Early Childhood. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-020-00270-8
  2. Richards, B., Umayahara, M., Maw, N., & Rao, N. (2020). Early childhood education, language of instruction, and child Development in Myanmar: Comparisons among ethnolinguistic groupsEarly Education and Development, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2020.1755179
  3. Rao, N., Richards, B., Sun, J., Weber, A., & Sincovich, A. (2019). Early childhood education and child development in four countries in East Asia and the Pacific. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 47, 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.08.011https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.08.011
  4. Sun, J., Lau, C, Sincovich, A., & Rao, N. (2018). Socioeconomic status and early child development in East Asia and the Pacific: The protective role of parental engagement in learning activities. Children and Youth Services Review, 93, 321-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.08.010
  5. Zhang, L., Sun, J., Richards, B., Davidson, K.C., & Rao, N. (2018). Motor skills and executive function contribute to early achievement in East Asia and the Pacific Region. Early Education and Development 29(8), 1061-1080. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2018.1510204
  6. Sun, J., Zhang, L., Chen, E., Lau, C., & Rao, N. (2018). Preschool attendance and executive function mediate early academic achievement gaps in East Asia and the Pacific. Early Education and Development, 29(8), 1039-1060. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2018.1498999
  7. Richards, B., Bacon-Shone, J., & Rao, N. (2018). Socioeconomic correlates of early child development – Gradients from six countries in the East Asia-Pacific. International Journal of Behavioral Development. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025418785460
  8. Zhou, J., Zhang, L. & Rao, N. (2018). 我國早期兒童學習發展的現狀分析: 一項來自EAP-ECDS 的研究報告 (The early developmental status and differences of young children in China: A Report from the EAP-ECDS validation study. 全球教育展望(Global Education). 7(47), 114-128.
  9. Rao, N., Sun, J., Richards, B., Weber, A., Sincovich, A., Darmstadt, G.L., & Ip, P. (2018). Assessing diversity in early childhood development in the East Asia-Pacific. Child Indicators Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-018-9528-5
  10. Weber, A., Darmstadt, G.L., & Rao, N. (2017). Gender disparities in child development in the East Asia-Pacific. The Lancet: Child & Adolescent Health. 1(3), 213-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(17)30073-1

Other publications

  1. Rao, N., Becher, Y., Lee, D., Richards, B., Sun, J., Bacon-Shone, J., Ip, P., Umayahara, M., & Chen, E. (2017). Assessing early development and learning: The East Asia-Pacific Early Childhood Development Scales (EAP-ECDS). EAP-ECDS Brief. ARNEC. UNICEF.
  2. Rao, N., Sun, J., & Becher, Y. (2015). Assessing early development and learning across cultures: The East Asia Pacific-Early Child Development Scales. Assessment and Development Matters, 7(2), 21-25.


  1. Rao, N., Sun, J., Ip, P. Bacon-Shone, J. Sincovich, A., Ho, F.K., & Gao, S. (2016). Early Child Development Scale in-depth Analysis. Final Report. UNICEF: Cambodia